Jumat, 19 Maret 2010

Table of Specification (Kisi-kisi Tes)

General Form
Table of specification is actually the blue-print of your test. It is a kind of a plan in the form of matrix which contains sample performances and their proportions you are going to measure. Heaton (1989) says in this aspect.
Before starting to write any test items, the test constructor should draw, up a detailed table of specifications showing aspects of the skills being tested and giving comprehensive coverage of the specific language elements to be included.
The above quotation clearly describe the contents of the table, namely the students skills which you are being to measure and the types of tests you are going to use to measure these skills. In addition to these you have to write the number of items you are going to write and their proportion and percentages. Finally you have to decide the possible time to do each item in minutes. Observe the following example of a table of specification.
How to complete the table of specifications?

Actually there are three kinds of test which you will have to write according to the 1994 curriculum. First, daily test which measure the students achievement during the process of teaching and learning. Second, the achievement tests given at the end of every unit, which measure the students’ achievement after they finish learning one unit. Third, final semester tests given at the end of every semester (4 months).
The construction of the first test is entirely based on the objectives of the lesson plan you have made. Since a lesson plan is usually designed for one meeting, and it covers a very limited topic and functional skills, your test plan must be similar than those of the other test plans.

1. Test of learning process is administered during the process of learning.
2. Achievement test (THB) is administered at the end of every unit. It is prepared by the teacher and must prefer to the instructional objectives formulated at the beginning of the lesson.
How to plan a table of specification based on the above instructional planning? First you have to examine carefully the objectives set a beginning of the plan. You find that there are three objectives for reading namely to get general description of the contents of the text, to get some specific information in the text, to get and interpret the meaning of the words in context. To measure the achievement of these objectives you can use written test.
For listening, there are three objectives i.e. finding the main ides, finding detail information and carrying our/t oral instruction. For these objectives too you can use written test in the form of comprehension questions to measure them. You can also use behavioral test in the form of giving physical response to the command you give to your students for objective 3 (an oral test).
For speaking the objectives are the ability of interviewing, introducing friends and retelling the contents. Since the abilities are oral so your test must be oral in the forms of giving instruction to the students to make an interview, to introduce that friends and to retell the contents of the text (scoring system will be explaining later).
For writing, there are three general objectives too, namely completing sentences with correct words, writing a short paragraph, and filling up the forms.
There are three types of oral test you want to use, namely:
1. Answering questions. For this purpose the test maybe in the form of oral questions (prepare beforehand) which will be answered by the students (there are 5 items).
2. Asking questions. The test in the form of giving instruction to the students to ask questions to the friends (there are 5 item).
3. Giving simple information (telling or retelling) here the test is in the form of instruction given to students to make a summary and then tell the class about summary.
The written test has 5 types namely:
1. Answering questions.
2. Writing composition.
3. Sentence completion.
4. Identifying pictures.
5. Writing summary.
In selecting the sample performance, sometimes it is necessary not to include every mentioned in the plan. Provided that some items have covered these skills. For this purpose you have to consult the specific objective, which guide you to more detailed information about the skills which are going to be achieved, and the learning and teaching activities which have been dones especially the materials which have been covered. It is recommended that the sample performances cover the materials used in the first meeting until the last meeting.

Writing Final Semester
The table of specifications for the final semester test in more or less the same with the THB (achievement test) of the lesson unit. Since the test are designed to measure the same general objectives of reading, listening, speaking, and writing. The differences are that the final semester test might cover wider areas of materials. Consequently in order that your test to be valid you must try to use materials comprising various kinds of themes, topic, and subtopics which have been covered during the semester (cawu)


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